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The correctness of the indentation of a list of source files can be verified by the cstyle program written by Bill Shannon.
In this style, the hard tabulator ts in vi is kept at eight columns, while a soft tabulator is often defined as a helper also sw in vi , and set at four.
The hard tabulators are used to indent code blocks, while a soft tabulator four spaces of additional indentation is used for all continuing lines that must be split over multiple lines.
Moreover, function calls do not use a space before the parenthesis, although C language native statements such as if , while , do , switch and return do in the case where return is used with parens.
Functions that declare no local variables in their top-level block should also leave an empty line after their opening block brace. The Allman style is named after Eric Allman.
This style puts the brace associated with a control statement on the next line, indented to the same level as the control statement.
Statements within the braces are indented to the next level. This style is similar to the standard indentation used by the Pascal languages and Transact-SQL , where the braces are equivalent to the keywords begin and end.
Consequences of this style are that the indented code is clearly set apart from the containing statement by lines that are almost all whitespace and the closing brace lines up in the same column as the opening brace.
Some people feel this makes it easy to find matching braces. The blocking style also delineates the block of code from the associated control statement.
Commenting out or removing a control statement or block of code, or code refactoring , are all less likely to introduce syntax errors via dangling or missing braces.
Also, it is consistent with brace placement for the outer-function block. The style purportedly helps improve readability on projectors.
Also, the indentation size and column restriction help create a visual cue for identifying excessive nesting of code blocks. These advantages combine to help provide newer developers and learners implicit guidance to manage code complexity.
The Whitesmiths style, also sometimes termed Wishart style, was originally used in the documentation for the first commercial C compiler, the Whitesmiths Compiler.
Whitesmiths, along with Allman , have been the most common bracing styles with equal popularity according to the Jargon File. This style puts the brace associated with a control statement on the next line, indented.
Statements within the braces are indented to the same level as the braces. The advantages of this style are similar to those of the Allman style.
Blocks are clearly set apart from control statements. The alignment of the braces with the block emphasizes that the full block is conceptually, and programmatically, one compound statement.
Indenting the braces emphasizes that they are subordinate to the control statement. The ending brace no longer lines up with the statement, but instead with the opening brace.
Like the Allman and Whitesmiths styles, GNU style puts braces on a line by themselves, indented by two spaces, except when opening a function definition, where they are not indented.
Popularised by Richard Stallman , the layout may be influenced by his background of writing Lisp code. This style combines the advantages of Allman and Whitesmiths , thereby removing the possible Whitesmiths disadvantage of braces not standing out from the block.
One disadvantage is that the ending brace no longer lines up with the statement it conceptually belongs to. In both cases, automatic reformatting destroys the original spacing, but automatic line indenting will work properly.
Steve McConnell , in his book Code Complete , advises against using this style: he marks a code sample which uses it with a "Coding Horror" icon, symbolizing especially dangerous code, and states that it impedes readability.
Horstmann adapts Allman by placing the first statement of a block on the same line as the opening brace. However, the edition now uses Allman style throughout.
This is the style used most commonly in the language Pico by its designers. Pico lacks return statements, and uses semicolons as statement separators instead of terminators.
It yields this syntax: . In the book Programmers at Work ,  C. Wayne Ratliff discussed using the style below. The style begins much like 1TBS but then the closing brace lines up with the indentation of the nested block.
He indicated that it was originally documented in material from Digital Research Inc. This style has sometimes been termed banner style,  possibly for the resemblance to a banner hanging from a pole.
Kernighan and Plauger use this style in the Ratfor code in Software Tools. A programmer may even go as far as to insert closing braces in the last line of a block.
This style makes indentation the only way to distinguish blocks of code, but has the advantage of containing no uninformative lines.
This could easily be called the Lisp style because this style is very common in Lisp code or the Python style Python has no braces, but the layout is very similar, as shown in the code blocks below.
In Python, layout is a part of the language, called the off-side rule. Haskell layout can make the placement of braces optional, although braces and semicolons are allowed in the language.
In Haskell, layout can replace braces. Usually the braces and semicolons are omitted for procedural do sections and the program text in general, but the style is commonly used for lists, records and other syntactic elements made up of some pair of parentheses or braces, which are separated with commas or semicolons.
In some situations, there is a risk of losing track of block boundaries. This is often seen in large sections of code containing many compound statements nested to many levels of indentations.
Superior results in some cases may be obtained with butyllithium : . Selective deprotection of silyl groups is possible in many instances.
For example, in the synthesis of taxol : . Silyl ethers are mainly differentiated on the basis of sterics or electronics. In general, acidic deprotections deprotect less hindered silyl groups faster, with the steric bulk on silicon being more significant than the steric bulk on oxygen.
Fluoride-based deprotections deprotect electron-poor silyl groups faster than electron-rich silyl groups. There is some evidence that some silyl deprotections proceed via hypervalent silicon species.
The selective deprotection of silyl ethers has been extensively reviewed. A selective deprotection will likely be successful if there is a substantial difference in sterics e.
Unfortunately, some optimization is inevitably required and it is often necessary to run deprotections partway and recycle material.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Protective Groups In Organic Synthesis. Tetrahedron Lett. Completion of the C and D rings. Categories : Functional groups Protecting groups.
A modified procedure using catalytic fluoride in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-methanol generates primarily volatile silicon byproducts.
DiLauro, W. Seo, S. Phillips, J. Various tert -butyldimethylsilyl ethers are easily removed in excellent yields by treatment with a catalytic amount of N -iodosuccinimide in methanol.
Karimi, A. Zamani, D. Zarayee, Tetrahedron Lett. The supported catalyst and the solvent can be readily recovered and recycled.
Kumar, S. Baskaran, J. A chemoselective, efficient and operationally simple desilylation of O-tert -butyldimethylsilyl ethers was achieved using chlorotrimethylsilane and potassium fluoride dihydrate in acetonitrile.
Peng, W. Li, Synlett , , A microwave-assisted, chemoselective and efficient method for the cleavage of silyl ethers is catalyzed by Selectfluor.
In addition, the transetherification and etherification of benzylic hydroxy groups in alcoholic solvents is observed. Shah, S. Singh, P. Guiry, J.
Carboxylic esters, labile phenolic acetates and TBDMS ethers of benzylic alcohols were unaffected under these conditions.
Lakshman, F. Tine, T. Khandaker, V. Basava, N. Agyemang, M. Benavidez, M. Guerrera, B. Zajc, Synlett , , 28 , Wang, H. Sun, Z. Sun, J.
With either 1. A direct transformation of aryl silyl ethers into biaryl ethers was possible through tandem desilylation and S N Ar reaction with activated aryl fluorides.
Yeom, H. Kim, S. Lee, B. Kim, Synlett , , Barnych, J. Zhang, L. Xu, M.